Doubts & Concerns regarding COVID-19 Vaccination PART 3

  • What is the extent of chance for getting blood clots after COVID-19 Vaccination ?

Research studies shows that there is 86-in-25-million were reported with blood clots after COVID-19 vaccination, and there is very less chance for developing a rare blood clot condition by various COVID-19 vaccines. Blood coagulation was aid by cell fragments, low platelet count and presence of some specific antibodies in blood.

Hematologists says that patients having history of blood clots are also can take vaccination, they are not at high risk of getting clots after COVID-19 Vaccination.

Since the clots observed after COVID-19 vaccination are completely different to other types of blood clots, such as deep vein thrombosis or a pulmonary embolism, or the clots that cause heart attacks and strokes.

  • What about Non Veg, Alcohol and Tobacco after COVID-19 Vaccination ?

There are no tangible scientific studies that have shown that non-vegetarian food makes the vaccine ineffective. Also, there are no approved scientific studies that quantifies the effect of alcohol or smoking on vaccination either.

However, Alcohol tends to aggravate and worsen these symptoms such as fever, chills, headache and nausea. Experts says Alcohol affects the body’s immune system negatively and there is a chance that the immune response to the vaccine may not be as effective if there is excessive alcohol in the system and tobacco also tends to affect the immune system and  may render the vaccine  less effective.

  • Things to kept in mind always !

– No vaccine is 100% effective, so should continue the safety precautions even after getting vaccinated.

– Continue wearing double mask, social distancing, wash hands or sanitize, avoid public gatherings etc

– Remember Vaccines doesn’t provide the immediate protection against getting infected. I t will take time to develop antibodies and immunity.

– Keep remember that vaccine is foe self protection, it does not stop the spread of infection from one person to another.

– Keep fighting against newly evolving strains of Corona Virus.

Disclaimer: The information included at this site is for educational purposes only.

Doubts & Concerns regarding COVID-19 Vaccination PART 1

Doubts & Concerns regarding COVID-19 Vaccination PART 2


Doubts & Concerns regarding COVID-19 Vaccination PART 2

  • What are the side effects of COVID-19 Vaccination ?

WHO classified side effects in to 4 such as mild to moderate, common, less common and long term.

Mild-to-moderate side effects includes, low-grade fever or muscle aches, and are normal. They are signs that the body’s immune system is responding to the vaccine.

Common side effects include pain at the injection site, fever, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, chills and diarrhea. The chances of any of these side effects occurring after vaccination differ according to the specific vaccine.

Less common side effects lasting more than three days, it included severe allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis. However, this reaction is extremely rare.

  • How to minimize side effects of post COVID-19 vaccination ?

–  Stay well-hydrated and take proper rest after vaccination for at least 2 days,

–  Apply a cold bag or ice pack on arm / site of injection,

–  Stay mobile by frequently moving the injected arm at the shoulder,

– Anti pyretic or analgesic medications (acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) may be taken to avoid post vaccinated symptoms. 

  • Can one get COVID-19 infection even after getting vaccinated  ?

Vaccines may not provide 100% protection against COVID-19, but the vaccine significantly reduces the risk of severe disease even after came in to contact with patients. Since vaccine improves the immunity in a good extent.

  • Chance of reinfection in COVID-19 patients ?

The research conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), out of the 1300 cases, 58 or 4.5% cases were termed as possible reinfections. So those who are previously been infected with COVID-19, had a lesser chance for reinfection.

Bharath Biotech’s Covaxin : 100% against severe infection; 78% against mild, moderate and severe; 70% against asymptomatic

https://chemologyhub.com/2021/05/05/approved-covid-19-vaccines/AstraZeneca (Covishield): Currently about 70% overall.

Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine : About 95%. Apparently 100% at preventing hospitalization and death.

Moderna : About 95%. Apparently 100% at preventing hospitalization and death.

Sputnic V : 91.4%

Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) : 66% efficacy at preventing symptomatic COVID-19 infections,100% effective at preventing hospitalizations and death.

Sinovac : 50.38% to 91.25%

– Novavax : 89.3%

– CanSino Biologics vaccine : 65.7% at preventing symptomatic cases, 90.98% efficacy in preventing severe disease.

  • What are the ingredients of different COVID-19 vaccines ?

– COVAXIN contains 6μ g of whole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 antigen (Strain: NIV-2020-770), and the other inactive ingredients such as aluminum hydroxide gel (250 μg), TLR 7/8 agonist (imidazoquinolinone) 15 μg, 2-phenoxyethanol 2.5 mg, and phosphate buffer saline up to 0.5 ml. The vaccine (COVAXINTM) thus has been developed by using inactivated/killed virus along with the aforementioned chemicals.

– COVISHIELD Vaccine includes the following ingredients: L-Histidine, L-Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, Magnesium chloride hexa-hydrate, Polysorbate 80, Ethanol, Sucrose, Sodium chloride, Disodium edetate dihydrate (EDTA), Water for injection.

– Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine contain mRNA, lipids ((4-hydroxybutyl) azanediyl) bis (hexane-6,1-diyl) bis (2-hexyldecanoate), 2 [(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-N, N-ditetradecylacetamide, 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and cholesterol), potassium chloride, monobasic potassium phosphate, sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate, and sucrose.

– Sputniv V contains a modified replication-defective adenovirus of a different serotype (Serotype 26 for the first component and serotype 5 for the second), modified to include the protein S-expressing gene of SARS-CoV-2, Tris-(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane, Sodium chloride, Sucrose,Magnesium chloride hexahydrate, Disodium EDTA dihydrate, Polysorbate 80, Ethanol, and Water.

– The Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine contains the following ingredients: messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), lipids (SM-102, polyethylene glycol [PEG] 2000 dimyristoyl glycerol [DMG], cholesterol, and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DSPC]), tromethamine, tromethamine hydrochloride, acetic acid, sodium acetate trihydrate, and sucrose.

– The Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine includes the following ingredients:recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus type 26 expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, citric acid monohydrate, trisodium citrate dihydrate, ethanol, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBCD), polysorbate-80, sodium chloride.

Disclaimer: The information included at this site is for educational purposes only.

Doubts & Concerns regarding COVID-19 Vaccination PART 1

Doubts & Concerns regarding COVID-19 Vaccination PART 3


Doubts & Concerns regarding COVID-19 Vaccination – PART 1

  • How important is to get vaccinated ?

Getting vaccinated is always safe rather than getting infected. There are different kind of vaccines are available and all those have good extend of effectiveness, the effectiveness indicated that the percentage of lower risk to get infected. Nobody claims that people will never get COVID-19 infection after vaccination, but they assure us that the vaccines will train our immune system to recognize and fight against the newer virus. Nowadays different kind of side infections like black fungus are effecting the post COVID-19 patients and also those who are under treatment, But the remarkable thing is that people who effecting more are weaker in immunity. So getting vaccinated is an important step to fight against this pandemic situation.

  • Is there any need to take precautions followed before even after getting vaccinated ?

Although you are vaccinated against COVID-19 even both doses, don’t fail to follow the precautions especially in public places. Keep do the sanitisation, personal hygiene, use of mask in proper way, maintaining distance etc for preventing the transmission of virus. The vaccine doesn’t mean, it will save you completely, The vaccine will provide the immunity in an extend predicted. So follow the precautions same as before.

  • Is it safe to take COVID-19 vaccine while pregnancy ? while breast feeding ? while menstruation and while planning for a baby ?

– Any available vaccine approved by  WHO is thoroughly tested and is safe. The CDS recommends that the pregnant women can take COVID-19 vaccine. If a woman is on any stage of IVF procedure, she also can take the vaccination.   

– There isn’t any data showing the harm to child through milk from vaccinated mother.So lactating mothers can get vaccinated.

– There’s no risk of miscarriage, preterm delivery, embryonic or congenital anomalies, foetal growth or developmental issues related to administration of vaccine during pregnancy.So pregnant mothers and breastfeeding mothers should be get vaccinated, that will be a safe guard for them and it will protect them from several other illnesses.

– People who are trying to become pregnant now or want to get pregnant also can receive a COVID-19 vaccine.There is no evidence about any type of vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines, cause fertility problems or problems trying to get pregnant.

– There isn’t any trouble with getting vaccinated during menstruation. Various reasons like environment, stress, sleep etc might make changes in menstrual cycle. So changes in menstrual cycle after getting vaccinated is temporary as other reasons. Getting vaccinated against corona virus while menstruating is advisable, no need to reschedule the vaccination by menstruation.

  • Who Shouldn’t get the COVID-19 Vaccine ?

– People with a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) to any vaccine or any ingredients in the vaccine, or injectable (intramuscular or intravenous) medication should take the opinion from health care.

– People who have a bleeding disorder or are on a blood thinner should avoid covaxin.

– people who have received any another corona virus vaccine.

Few countries started vaccination for those who are above the age of 12, but others not yet started. So accordingly below the age of 18 is not allowed for getting vaccinated.

  • Should someone get the COVID-19 vaccine even if they already had COVID-19?

Those who are already had COVID-19 should be get vaccinated, since the range in which the antibodies developed after the COVID-19 infection are not known, whether the range is detected the correct range for developing proper immunity is not known. They must be having some natural protection against the virus, but it is still unclear how long that immunity is going to last.   The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), however, suggests waiting for 90 days from the day you test positive for COVID-19 disease if you haven’t received any shot yet.

Disclaimer: The information included at this site is for educational purposes only.

Doubts & Concerns regarding COVID-19 Vaccination PART 2

Doubts & Concerns regarding COVID-19 Vaccination PART 3



What do you think about water fluoridation ? is it beneficial or harmful ?

fluoride was introduced as a public health measure in the 1950s with as much enthusiasm.

Before that let’s check what is fluoride and what is fluoridation ?

Fluoride ?

Fluorine is an abundant element, the 13th most in the world. fluorine (F) is a corrosive pale yellow gas, discovered by Henri Mossan in 1886. Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine, It has the highest electronegativity of all elements. Fluoride is widely distributed in the air, soils, rocks, and water. Water is the major dietary source of fluoride, and some other fluoride sources includes tea, seafood that contains edible bones or shells, medicinal supplements, and fluoridated toothpastes.

Water Fluoridation & Milk Fluoridation  ?

water fluoridation is the controlled adjustment of the amount of fluoride in drinking water/ public water supply to a level recommended. By 2012, more than 435 million people worldwide had access naturally fluoridated water (about 57 million) and about 378 million people access water with adjusted fluoride concentrations. Some of these countries include the US, Brazil, Australia, Canada, Spain, Argentina, South Korea, and New Zealand etc.

Adding prescribed quantity of fluoride to milk is milk fluoridation. Since 1986, programs aiming to validate the feasibility for community use of fluoridated milk for caries prevention were promoted and supported by the WHO International Programme for Milk Fluoridation. At present, milk fluoridation programme, supported by the WHO and Food and Agriculture Organization, are running continuously in about 15 countries and various channels are used to provide fluoridated milk to children attending kindergarten and school.

Is Water Fluoridation Beneficial or Noxious ?

First we can check the positive impact ! The verifiable positive impact of water fluoridation is prevention of dental caries. Dental caries, also known as cavities or tooth decay, are an oral disease. water fluoridation rebuild (remineralize) weakened tooth enamel, slow down the loss of minerals from tooth enamel, reverse early signs of tooth decay and prevent the growth of harmful oral bacteria.

Bacteria present in mouth produces acids by breaking down the sugar and carbs, it leads to the demineralization. This was the major reason for fluoridation of water.

Now we can check the noxious part of fluoridation ! fluoride is a pollutant rather than a nutrient. Researchers marked various adverse effect of fluoride. No fluoride deficiency disease has ever been documented for humans other than tooth decay.

There is a mention quantity of 0.7 ppm is best for dental caries, over  the concentration of 0.4 ppm will make hazardous effect. These excess fluoride intake causes the bone disease called skeletal fluorosis and also hardened and less elastic bones with increased risk of fracture, joint related issues sometimes bone cancer. Fluoride may adversely affect cognitive development in children, some times leads to ADHD. Higher concentration of fluoride also cause hyperparathyroidism and decreased concentration of calcium in bones, increased concentration of calcium in blood rather than normal concentration.

Although the aim was treating dental caries, but it seems that artificial fluoridation of water supplies has been a controversial public health strategy since its introduction.


Camouflage In Animals

We had seen the craziest color changing animal chameleon. In childhood most of us done the keen observation on them, it makes us embarrassed that how its changed their color, how the dress changes with surrounding ? can we do the same ?

Yes that the natural phenomenon called Camouflage used by plants and animals.

What is Camouflage ? 

Camouflage refers back to the term cover or conceal.it’s far a natural phenomenon utilized by plants and animals to cover themselves as their environment.In order to avoid the spotting they imitate their surroundings.As a prey they alternate the skin shade or hide in the surrounding, Hence they can survive from predators.

How ? In these animals, cells contain a special pigment named chromatophores, Which is responsible for this exciting color change.The chemical pigment within the cell absorbs light, then reflect or scatter back.

Animals showing Camouflage –

  • Chameleon : Chameleon alter the color in different way, some times it also changes the pattern of skin other than changing color accordance with the background.
  • Octopus : Octopus hide themselves in dark clouds if they sense danger, They can change their color within seconds: from fire red via deep green to dark blue.
  • Green Anole : The green anole is capable of turning both green and brown; it can’t change colors in between, but it can show both green and brown coloration.
  • Golden Tortoise Beetle : it’s capable of swapping out its beautiful jeweled appearance for a spotted dark reddish-brownish color, and it seems to do this when it’s upset—like, when a something touches it.
  •  Grey Tree Frog : When they seated on rocks or dead plant matter, it likes to turn a shade of grey ranging from nearly black to nearly white; when up in the trees, it can turn a vivid green.
  • Hog Fish : It also changes colors very quickly, generally from white to red to brown to various mottled colors. Interestingly, a recent study found that hog fish actually detect colors with their skin. They can’t see with their skin, exactly, but they can detect some wavelengths and patterns
  • Frog Fish : It looks like a sponge as it sits motionless and also change their color. Light frog fish can turn yellow and yellow-brown. Dark frog fish can turn dark green, black or dark red.
  • Spider : Spiders called flower spiders (or crab spiders) change their color. They usually change color to hide from their prey. Consequently, the spiders change color to resemble the flower surface on which they sit through the reflection of light.
  • Squid : squid can change from sandy brown to vibrant red or ripple with bright metallic rainbows so quickly.The purpose of changing color is to match the surface they are on so that they can avoid predators. The camouflage also acts as a hunting tactic since it enables them to hide away from their prey.
  • Stoat : Stoat change the color of fur by seasonal variation.The brown fur helps it blend into grasses in warm months, By winter, white fur replaces the stoat’s brown coat, helping it blend into snowy landscapes.




The procedures used to combine two amino acid residues to form a peptide are referred to as coupling methods. Coupling involves nucleophilic attack by the amino group of one residue at the electrophilic carbonyl carbon atom of the carboxy-containing component that has been activated by the introduction of an electron-withdrawing group Y. Activation may be carried out either in the presence of the N-nucleophile or in the absence of the N-nucleophile, which may be by choice or by necessity. When a coupling is effected by the addition of a single compound to a mixture of the two reactants, the compound is referred to as a coupling reagent. The coupling reagent requires a subsequent deprotonation of one of the reactants to effect the reaction.The activating moiety Y is composed of either a halide atom or an azide group or an oxygen atom linked to a double-bonded carbon atom (O–C=), a cationic carbon (O–C+) or phosphorus (O–P+) atom, or a nitrogen atom adjacent to a double bonded atom (O–N–X=).


Peptide bond formation is a nucleophilic substitution reaction of an amino group (nucleophile) at a carboxyl group involving a tetrahedral intermediate. Furthermore, the peptide coupling reaction must be performed under mild conditions, and preferably at room temperature. Activation of the carboxyl component is achieved by the introduction of electron accepting moieties. Carboxyl components can be activated as acyl halides, acyl azides, acylimidazoles, anhydrides, esters etc. There are different ways of coupling reactive carboxyl derivatives with an amine.

In recent years, peptide-coupling reactions have significantly advanced in accord with the development of new peptide-coupling reagents and their application to both solution and solid- phase synthesis.

The established method for the production of synthetic peptides in the lab is known as solid-phase peptide synthesis,The general SPPS procedure is one of repeated cycles of alternate N-terminal deprotection and coupling reactions.

Peptide coupling reagents

An important feature that has enabled the broad application of SPPS is the generation of extremely high yields in the coupling step. Highly efficient amide bond-formation conditions are required.and adding an excess of each amino acid (between 2- and 10-fold). The minimization of amino acid racemization during coupling is also of vital importance to avoid epimerization in the final peptide product. Amide bond formation between an amine and carboxylic acid is slow, and as such usually requires ‘coupling reagents’ or ‘activators’. A wide range of coupling reagents exist, due in part to their varying effectivness for particular couplings, many of these reagents are commercially available.

Aminium/uronium and phosphonium salts

Some coupling reagents omit the carbodiimide completely and incorporate the HOAt/HOBt moiety as an aminium/uronium or phosphonium salt of a non-nucleophilic anion (tetrafluoroborate or hexafluorophosphate).[10] Examples of aminium/uronium reagents include HATU (HOAt), HBTU/TBTU (HOBt) and HCTU (6-ClHOBt). HBTU and TBTU differ only in the choice of anion. Phosphonium reagents include PyBOP (HOBt) and PyAOP (HOAt).

These reagents form the same active ester species as the carbo di imide activation conditions, but differ in the rate of the initial activation step, which is determined by nature of the carbon skeleton of the coupling reagent.[17] Furthermore, aminium/uronium reagents are capable of reacting with the peptide N-terminus to form an inactive guanidino by-product, whereas phosphonium reagents are not.

Structure of symmetric iminium / uronium salts coupling reagent.

Later, El-Faham and Albericio reported a new family of coupling reagents based on the modification of the structures of the carbocation skeleton moiety, which feature relatively high reactivity and low racemization during peptide bond formation . Very recently, El-Faham and Albericio extended their work taking an N-containing 6-membered ring structure containing O, S, and N-CH3 for synthesis of novel coupling reagents.

Structure of morphine based coupling reagent.

Recent reports confirmed the explosive properties of HOBt derivatives . Accordingly, El-Faham and Albericio reported the new additives as well as their uronium salts derivatives as replacement for HOBt and HOAt derivatives . Among these entire additives Oxyma and its uronium salt COMU showed an excellent replacement for HOBt and its analogues.

Structure of oxime to replace of HOBt.
Structure of oximino and benzotriazolo uronium salt.

5-(hydroxyimino)-1,3- dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6 (1H,3H,5H)-trione (Oxyma-B) reported as an excellent additive for the suppression of racemization during peptide synthesis [27]. Oxyma-B, has the same structurefuture for the carbonyl moiety in which the oxime group is flanked between the two carbonyl group as in HONM. In addition, Oxyma-B performs better as a racemization suppressor than Oxyma Pure and even better than HOAt in both stepwise and segment coupling in solid- and solution-phase peptide synthesis . Lately,a new class of O-form uronium-type coupling reagents derived from Oxyma-B were introduced TOMBU and COMBU.

Structure of Oxyma-B (16), and its uronium salt TOMBU (17), and COMBU (18).

-The acyl-azide method of coupling has been available for about a century,

-all methods used for coupling N-alkoxycarbonylamino acids can be used to couple Nαprotected peptides.


Black Fungus Hit Along With Corona Virus

Worldwide countries are struggling against second wave and rapid increase in the Covid 19 cases. But an awful and uncommon fungal infection affecting some of the patients in addition to corona virus infection.

Mucormycosis, also called as black fungus is a serious fungal infection, is being affected frequently in Covid 19 patients across India. As of May 2021- 8,848 cases of Covid-19 associated black fungus / mucormycosis had been reported around different states in India.

What is black fungus?

Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is a serious fungal infection caused by a group of molds called mucormycetes.These fungi lives in the environment, mainly in soil, decayed vegetables, fruits, compost pits,animal dung etc.

Image Credits : Wikipedia

Rhizopus species, Mucor species, Rhizomucor species, Syncephalastrum species etc are different types of this fungi which commonly causes mucormycosis. Rhinocerebral (sinus and brain) mucormycosis is an infection in the sinuses that can spread to the brain. This form of mucormycosis is most common in people with uncontrolled diabetes.

The people get contact with this fungi by inhalation of spores, swallowing of spores through food or medicines and spores came in to contact with cuts and wounds in the skin.

These fungi are harmful for people who have weakened immune systems or damaged tissue and those people who are using corticosteroidal drugs, which leads to the suppression of immune system.It also spreads in hospitals and homes by the use of air humidifiers and oxygen tank containing dirty water.

The average fatality rate is 54 percent, according to the CDC. Sometimes surgeons need to remove patients’ nose, eyes or even their jaw to prevent it getting to the brain.

Why are coronavirus patients at risk ?

People with diabetes and obesity have a tendency to broaden more intense Covid-19 infections. It may leads to receive corticosteroids, which might be often used to deal with Covid-19. but the corticosteroids together with diabetes increase the chance of mucormycosis.

On poor management of diabetes and increased blood sugar level will leads to form an acidic nature to the tissues.This environment will be suitable for the growth of the mucorales fungi.A latest summary of Covid-19 related mucormycosis in India confirmed 94% of patients had diabetes.

So damage to tissue and blood vessels from Covid-19 infection, treatment with corticosteroids, excessive history rates of diabetes are increase the growth susceptibility of this fungus.

Sign and symptoms ?

Symptoms of Mucormycosis or black fungus, include headache, fever, pain under the eyes,chest pain and breathing difficulties/ nasal or sinus congestion, facial deformity, facial pain and partial loss  of vision(blurred or double vision). It affects the sinuses, the brain and the lungs and can be life threatening in immunity weakened people.

Treatment for black fungus ?

Normal saline (IV) infusion is administered for 4-6 weeks before the administration of antifungal Amphotericin B dose. This dose is given according to 3-4 mg per kg of body weight per day. In some cases, surgery may be required.

Preventive measures ?

wearing a mask is strictly advised,those people in more contact with soil by their job should  wear shoes, long trousers as well as long-sleeved shirts and gloves.Everyone should maintain personal hygiene.Those who have diabetes need to keep it in control and monitor blood glucose levels, especially after the Covid-19 infection. Steroid use is to be reduced and immunomodulating drugs are to be discontinued with the advice of doctors.



Photo chemistry is the branch of chemistry which is mainly concerned with rates and mechanisms of reactions resulting from the exposure of reactants to light radiations. The photo chemical reaction is, in fact, the thermal reaction of the electronically excited state of the molecule while the dark reaction of the molecule is the thermal reaction of the ground state.

A photo chemical reaction is a chemical reaction triggered when light energy is absorbed by a substance’s molecules. This response leads the molecules to experience a temporary excited state, thus altering their physical and chemical properties from the substance’s initial molecule.

Photo chemical Reaction Definition

“The photo chemical reaction is none other than a chemical reaction that starts with light being absorbed as a form of energy”. Temporary peak states would be triggered while the molecules absorb light and there would be physical and chemical property differences to a large extent from the real molecules.

The resultant chemical structures could be separated, modified, mixed among the similar or different molecules along with the transfer of hydrogen atoms, electronic charge to separate molecules, protons, and electrons. The peak states in comparison to the real ground states are stronger reductants and acids that are stronger.

The mechanism of a photo reaction should ideally include a detailed characterization of the primary events as outlined by the classification of photo chemical reaction pathways. The quantum yields and hence the rate constants of all relevant photo physical and photo chemical processes, in addition to the information about the structure and fate of any reactive intermediates, their lifetimes and reactivities.

Photo chemical reaction, a chemical reaction initiated by the absorption of energy in the form of light. The consequence of molecules’ absorbing light is the creation of transient excited states whose chemical and physical properties differ greatly from the original molecules. These new chemical species can fall apart, change to new structures, combine with each other or other molecules, or transfer electrons, hydrogen atoms, protons, or their electronic excitation energy to other molecules. Excited states are stronger acids and stronger reductants than the original ground states.

The Basic Laws of Photo chemistry

The First Law of Photo chemistry states that light must be absorbed for photo chemistry to occur. This is a simple concept, but it is the basis for performing photo chemical and photo biological experiments correctly. If light of a particular wavelength is not absorbed by a system, no photo chemistry will occur, and no photo biological effects will be observed, no matter how long one irradiates with that wavelength of light.

The Second Law of Photo chemistry states that for each photon of light absorbed by a chemical system, only one molecule is activated for a photo chemical reaction. This law is true for ordinary light intensities, however, with high-powered lasers, two-photon reactions can occur, i.e., the molecule is raised to a higher energy state than produced by single-photon absorption.

The Bunsen-Roscoe Law of Reciprocity states that a photo chemical effect is directly proportional to the total energy dose, irrespective of the time required to deliver the dose. This law is true for chemicals in a test tube, but the response of cells to radiation usually involves a sequence of interacting biological reactions, making a linear “dose x time” relationship highly unlikely. There is no reciprocity when damage is produced, e.g., DNA damage, but there can be reciprocity over a narrow range of doses for photo receptors that trigger a response, such as phytochrome

Grotthus-Draper Law (or) The Principle of Photochemical Activation: Grotthus-Draper law states that only the light which is absorbed by a substance can bring about a photochemical change. However, the absorbed radiation does not necessarily cause a chemical reaction. When the conditions are not favorable for the molecules to react, the light energy may be re-emitted as heat or light or it remains unused.


Oxidation under the influence of radiant energy (as light) or Photo-oxidation is a chain process incorporating a large number of chemical reactions which are subsequent to the outcome of the primary event—absorption of a photon, which induces breakdown to free-radical products.

Main steps of photo oxidation : 1. Initiation 2. Propagation 3. Branching 4. Termination

Photo oxidation reactions

1. Formation of peroxy compounds

-Irradiating the parent organic compound in the presence of oxygen and a sensitizer. -Reaction occurs by the excitation of the sensitizer to its triplet state. -Either the triplet attracts a hydrogen atom from the substrate to form a radical which then reacts with the oxygen molecule.

2. Conjugated dienes yield cyclic peroxides in a reaction of Diels-Alder type.

3. Oxidative coupling of aromatic compounds.

4. Formation of polycyclic compound.

5. Photo oxidation of cholesterol.

6. Photo oxidation of polymers.

Light absorbed by polymers-photo chemical reaction can occurs as a result of activation of a polymer macro molecule to its excited singlet or triplet states. Chemical change that reduces the polymers molecular weight.


Photo addition is any bi-molecular addition reaction that take place under the influence of light. Photo addition forming 1:1 adduct by the reaction of an excited state of one molecule with ground state of another.The molecule which in excited state are carbonyl compound , quinine, aromatic compound,or alkene molecule and the molecules which present ground state is commonly alkenes. Majority of the photo additions reactions forming ring product.

1. Paterno-Buchi reaction (Photo addition of alkene to carbonyl compound) It is [2+2]photo addition reaction

2. Addition of C-H across C=O

3. Addition of X-H across a C=C

4. Linear addition to an unsaturated molecule

5. Cyclo addition of unsaturated molecule.


Photo fragmentation provide a variety of diradical and zwitter ionic intermediates including carbenes and nitrenes. The α-cleavage of a σ-bond attached directly to a chromophore is a small molecule (eg CO,CO2,N2,O2). The beta cleavage of a σ-bond is occasionally encountered.

Beta Cleavage ;

Example: 1. The side chain of riboflavin can split off to form lumiflavin



Its quiet common that impaired gut health effect digestive problems, some times we feels nausea, vomiting etc. But Do you ever think that gut health connect with brain, It links mental health.

The Gastro intestinal tract effects on acidity, diarrhea, constipation etc, in the same way it also effects brain, emotions, and anxiety. There is a bidirectional communication system between GI tract and Central nervous system.

Some bacteria in the gut appear to produce some of the same substances used by doctors to treat depression and may naturally play a role in maintaining our emotional balance. 

Our feelings of stress, anxiety and severe depression linking to disturbances among hundreds of microbe species living in our gut, Researchers called them as Psychobiomes.

gut microbiota,the trillions of microorganisms inside the gut which carry out vital functions inside the immune system and metabolism by means of supplying vital inflammatory mediators, nutrients and vitamins – can assist alter brain feature via some thing referred to as the “gut-brain axis.”

The gut communicate to brain by means of vagus nerve, it collect information on activities in the gut and those of your microbiome, and transfer this information to the brain so it can make important decisions about your digestion. However stress shuts down the vagus nerve, preventing it from performing those crucial tasks. If the vagus nerve is unresponsive because of stress, it is not able to launch anti inflammatory molecules that conciliate inflammation. inflammation influences the central nervous system and it may cause symptoms of depression. Conversely, depression also can cause inflammation.

Those who experience anxiety signs is probably helped with the aid of taking steps to alter the microorganisms in their intestine the use of probiotic and non-probiotic meals and supplements
Probiotics are living organisms found evidently in some foods which can be also known as “desirable” or “friendly” micro organism because they fight towards harmful micro organism and prevent them from settling within the intestine.

Keep Healthy Gut, Eat Healthy Food, Don’t get Stress.



In organic chemistry, a pericyclic reaction is the type of organic reaction wherein the transition state of the molecule has a cyclic geometry, the reaction progresses in a concerted fashion, and the bond orbitals involved in the reaction overlap in a continuous cycle at the transition state. Pericyclic reactions stand in contrast to linear reactions, encompassing most organic transformations and proceeding through an acyclic transition state, on the one hand and coarctate reactions, which proceed through a doubly cyclic, concerted transition state on the other hand. Pericyclic reactions are usually rearrangement or addition reactions.

The major classes of pericyclic reactions are: 1. Cyclo addition 2. Electro cyclic reaction 3. Sigmatrophic rearrangement reaction

Characteristics of Pericyclic reactions: * The pericyclic reactions occur in single step and hence there is no intermediate formed during the reaction. * The breaking and making of bonds (both σ & π) occur simultaneously in a cyclic transition state. * The configuration of the product depends on 1) the configuration of reactants 2) the number of electron pairs undergoing reorganization and 3) the reaction conditions (like thermal or photochemical).


Cyclo addition reactions involve the formation of a cyclic product due to addition of two different π bond containing components, which are joined by newly formed two σ bonds at their ends at the expense of two π bonds. Otherwise we can explain it as, A cycloaddition is a chemical reaction, in which “two or more unsaturated molecules (or parts of the same molecule) combine with the formation of a cyclic adduct in which there is a net reduction of the bond multiplicity”. It is usually reversible and the backward reaction is also referred to as retro-cycloaddition or a cycloreversion.

Examples of cycloaddition reaction

  1. The classic example of cycloaddition is Diels-Alder reaction between a Diene and a Dienophile to give a cyclic adduct.

2. Vinyl acetate reacts with butadiene via the Diels-Alder cycloaddition to form a six membered ring product

3. The Huisgen cyclo addition reaction is a 1,3-dipolar process and provides a tri-azole as the product The Huisgen cyclo-addition reaction is an example of a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, A 1,3-dipolar cyclo-addition involves a 1,3-dipole reacting with a dipolarophile (lover of dipoles) to form a ring. The type of ring formed depends on the nature of the 1,3-dipole and the dipolarophile. A 1,3-dipole is a reactive intermediate that contains both a positive and a negative charge, which are in a 1,3 relationship to one another. It’s very similar to a magnet which has a positive pole and a negative pole. The positive and negative charges on the intermediate make it very reactive toward dipolarophiles. The Huisgen cyclo-addition involves an organic azide (a compound containing three nitrogen atoms all bonded together) reacting with an alkyne (a compound containing a carbon-carbon triple bond). The product of the reaction is a five membered ring containing three nitrogen atoms as part of the ring, called a triazole.

4. The Cheletropic Cycloaddition Reaction A cheletropic cycloaddition is a reaction that occurs in which both new bonds are formed to the same atom on one of the reactants. The classic example of this type of cycloaddition is the reaction between butadiene and sulfur dioxide. Notice that the sulfur atom is forming a bond to each of the two terminal carbons in butadiene. This is the characterizing feature of a cheletropic cycloaddition reaction and makes it fairly easy to recognize amongst other types of cycloaddition processes.

Butadiene reacts with sulfur dioxide in a cheletropic cycloaddition reaction


In organic chemistry, an electrocyclic reaction is a type of pericyclic rearrangement where the net result is one pi bond being converted into one sigma bond or vice versa, otherwise electrocyclic reactions are intramolecular pericyclic reactions which involve the rearrangement of π-electrons in an open conjugated system leading to formation of a cyclic product with a new σ bond at the expense of a π-bond. However the electrocyclic reactions not only involve ring-closure but also ring opening, which are referred to as retro-electrocyclic reactions.

Examples 1.The formation of Cyclohexa-1,3-diene by heating Hexa-1,3,5-triene is an example of ring-closure electrocyclic reaction.

2. Some other reactions


A sigma-tropic reaction in organic chemistry is a pericyclic reaction wherein the net result is one σ-bond is changed to another σ-bond in an uncatalyzed intramolecular reaction. The name sigmatropic is the result of a compounding of the long-established sigma designation from single carbon–carbon bonds and the Greek word tropos, meaning turn. In this type of rearrangement reaction, a substituent moves from one part of a π-bonded system to another part in an intramolecular reaction with simultaneous rearrangement of the π system. True sigmatropic reactions are usually uncatalyzed, although Lewis acid catalysis is possible. Sigmatropic reactions often have transition-metal catalysts that form intermediates in analogous reactions. The most well-known of the sigmatropic rearrangements are the [3,3] Cope rearrangement, Claisen rearrangement, Carroll rearrangement, and the Fischer indole synthesis.

Sigmatropic rearrangements are concerted unimolecular isomerization reactions characterized by the overall movement of a σ-bond from one position to another with an accompanying rearrangement of π-electrons of conjugated system so as to accommodate the new σ-bond.

EXAMPLES 1. The [3,3] Cope rearrangement. The σ-bond undergoing movement is shown as red thick line.


Healthy and Nutrient diet during Covid-19 pandemic

Healthy diet

Presently Covid-19 pandemic is a leading challenge throughout the globe. It’s far mandatory to acquire and preserve proper nutritional status to fight against virus. Nutritional status of individual is affected by numerous elements which includes age, sex, health status, lifestyles style and medications. 

Most effective nutrition and dietary nutrient intake impact the immune system, consequently the most effective sustainable manner to survive in current context is to reinforce the immune system. A right diet can make certain that the body is in right state to defeat the virus, but along with the dietary management guidelines the food safety management and appropriate food practices is obligatory.

Vitamin C letters made of citrus fruits – lemon, grapefruit, orange and kiwi slices

In the current scenario, it is vital to be privy to the particular sorts of food that could improve our immune system to be able to fight COVID-19

Eat fresh and unprocessed foods every day

Healthy food selection : fresh vegetables and fruits.
  • Include fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts and whole grains and foods from animal sources (e.g. meat, fish, etc)
  • 2 cups(4 servings)of fruit (guava, apple, banana, strawberry, cantaloupe melon, grapefruit, pineapple, papaya, orange, Longman fruit, blackcurrant, pummelo)
  • 2.5 cups (5 servings) of vegetables (green bell peppers, garlic, ginger, kale, lime, coriander (dried), broccoli, green chili pepper)and legumes (beans and lentils).
  • 180 g of grains(unprocessed maize, oats, wheat, millet, brown rice or roots such as yam, potato, taro or cassava) and nuts (almonds, coconut, and pistachio).
  • 160 g of meat and beans ( Red meat once or twice per week, and poultry 2−3 times per week),foods from animal sources (e.g. fish, fish, eggs, and milk)
  • For snacks, fresh fruits and raw vegetables rather than foods that are high in sugar, salt or fat. Avoid irregular snacking.
  • Avoid overcooking vegetables and fruit – to avoid the loss of important vitamins
  • Make sure the food is prepared and served at acceptable temperatures (≥72°C for 2 mins).

Need Enough Water

Drink water
  • Water is essential. It helps to transport nutrients in the blood, gets rid of waste, and regulates the body temperature.
  • Drink 8 – 10 cups of water daily.
  • Water is the excellent choice, other liquids also can be consumed inclusive of lemon juice (diluted in water and unsweetened), tea and coffee. keep away from consuming an excessive amount of caffeine, sweetened fruit juices, fizzy liquids and beverages high in sugar

Consume unsaturated fats

Eat unsaturated fats(found in avocado, fish, nuts, soy, olive oil, canola, corn oil, and sunflower) rather than saturated fats(found in butter, fatty meat, coconut and palm oils, cheese, ghee, and cream).

Avoid foods high in salt and sugar

  • Avoid all fizzy, carbonated, concentrated juices, and all drinks which contain sugar.
  • Choose fresh fruits instead of sweet snacks such as cookies, cake and chocolate
  • Limit the salt intake to five g a day.

Few Immune Boosting Foods

  1. Citrus fruits : Citrus fruits are high in vitamin C, a nutrient known to help give your immune system a boost. It encourages your immune system to produce white blood cells, which are necessary to fight infections.

Popular citrus fruits include: grapefruit, oranges, clementines, tangerines, lemons and limes.

Citrus fruits.

2. red bell pepper / capsicum : One medium-sized red bell pepper contains 152 milligrams of vitamin C, or enough to fulfill your RDA. Peppers are also a great source of beta carotene, a precursor of vitamin A (retinol). Vitamin A is important for healthy skin, your mucous membranes and your immune system.

3. Broccoli : Broccoli is a nutrient-packed powerhouse to support your immune system. One cup of broccoli provides as much vitamin C as an orange. The veggie is also high in beta-carotene, potassium, magnesium, zinc, and iron. Broccoli supplies an array of B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, and B6).


4. Garlic : Garlic has been used as an antiseptic, antibacterial, and antifungal agent. It may help the body resist or destroy viruses and other microorganisms. It does this by boosting the immune system. Garlic is also claimed to fight infections.

5. Ginger : Research also suggests that ginger can help improve immune health due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Ginger reduce chronic pain and helps in sore throat,nausea etc.

6. Yogurt : Yogurt packed with vitamins and protein, it’s also a source of lactobacillus, a probiotic (or beneficial type of bacteria) that helps fight off the bad guys and also gives your immune system a boost.

Healthy Yogurt

7. Turmeric : Turmeric is a natural way to help bolster the immune system by increasing the immunomodulating capacity of the body.

8. Papaya : Papaya has antioxidant properties and a healthy dose of Vitamin C which improves immune function and lowers your risk of several diseases.

9. Kiwi : The flesh is rich with vitamins that stimulate immunity and reduce the risk of disease. Kiwi contains abundant amounts of Vitamin C, which stimulates the body’s immune response. In fact, the kiwifruit contains roughly 230% of the daily recommended intake of Vitamin C.



Now the different parts of world is facing the third wave of the Covid-19. It has a higher case fatality rate and unknown route of transmission. Worldwide scientists were worked hard in researching new vaccine. After untiring efforts more than a dozen vaccines now have been authorized around the globe; many more remain in development.

National regulatory authorities have granted emergency use authorizations for fourteen Covid-19 vaccines. Six of those have been approved for emergency or full use by at least one WHO-recognized stringent regulatory authority (Oxford–AstraZeneca, Pfizer-BioNTech, Sputnik V, Sinopharm-BBIBP, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson).

  1. Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine (Vaxzevria / Covishield)

The Vaxzevria – AstraZeneca COVID-19 (AZD1222) (ChAdOx1 nCov-19) (C19VAZ) coronavirus vaccine is made from a virus (ChAdOx1), a weakened version of a common cold virus (adenovirus). Genetic meterial has been added to the ChAdOx1 construct, which is used to make proteins from the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus called Spike glycoprotein (S).This protein is usually found on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 and plays an essential role in the infection pathway of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine , Vaxzevria

Vaxzevria/covishield vaccine is adviced more in people aged 18 years and older.People with a history of severe allergic reaction to any component of the vaccine should not take it. The recommended dosage is two doses given intramuscularly (0.5ml each) with an interval of 8 to 12 weeks. It has an efficacy of 63.09% against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.

covishield vaccine for covid 19

2. Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine

The Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, sold under the brand name Comirnaty, is an m-RNA-based covid-19 vaccine. It is given by intramuscular injection. It is composed of nucleoside modified mRNA (modRNA) encoding a mutated form of the full-length spike proteinof SARS COV-2, which is encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles.

The vaccine has only been tested in children above 16 years of age. Therefore, WHO does not recommend vaccination of children below 16 years of age before.

The CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommend that Pfizer/BioNTech’s Covid vaccine be administered to 12- to 15-year-old adolescents, following an FDA decision on May 12, 2021 Wednesday to expand the vaccine’s Emergency Use Authorization to include this age group.

The dose and the schedule are the same; the two shots are given three weeks apart.

Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine

A protective effect starts to develop 12 days after the first dose, but full protection requires two doses which WHO recommends be administered with a 21 to 28-day interval.

3. Sputnic V

Russia’s Sputnik V also known as Gam-COVID-Vac, is an adenoviral vector-based vaccine in which adenovirus serotypes 5 and 26 are used.It is the first registered vaccine against COVID-19.Sputnik V uses a weakened virus to stimulate an immune response.

Sputnic V

Sputnic V is available in a lyophilized (dry) form of the vaccine that significantly facilitates the logistics of its distribution in international markets due to simplified requirements for its storage temperature (+ 2 – 8 degrees Celsius).

Sputnik vaccine is indicated for active immunization to prevent COVID-19 disease in individuals of ≥ 18 years of age and indicating 91.6% efficacy without unusual side effects. The developers says this 2 dose vaccine has 21 days to 3 months of interval.

4. Sinopharm-BBIBP

BBIBP-CorV, also known as the Sinopharm New Crown COVID-19 vaccine,is an inactivated vaccine made of virus particles grown in culture and lack disease-producing capability.

BBIBP-CorV,was developed by Sinopharm’s Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co. and the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

BBIBP-CorV  Sinopharm vaccine

It has an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and packed into prefilled syringes in 0.5-mL sterile phosphate-buffered saline without preservative, and the vaccine is given intramuscularly in two doses 28 days apart. Sinopharm showed that it had an efficacy rate of 79 percent.In phase I/II placebo-controlled randomized trials of healthy individuals 18 to 80 years old, all recipients of two vaccine doses developed neutralizing and binding antibodies

5. The Moderna covid 19 vaccine

The Moderna covid 19 vaccine(mRNA 1273) is an mNRA-based vaccine.The mRNA in the vaccine is embedded in lipid nanoparticles that enable delivery of the RNA into host cells to allow expression of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antigen. The vaccine elicits both neutralizing antibody and cellular immune responses to the S antigen, which may contribute to protection against COVID-19 disease.

This vaccine is produced by the American company Moderna, the U.S. National Institute of allergy and infectious diseases, the U.S. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, and the Coalition for Epidermic Preparedness Innovation.

Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine

The Moderna covid 19 vaccine is administered in two intramuscular doses of 0.5 mL each, given one 28 days apart. The vaccine is recommended for people aged 18 years and older.

Based on evidence from clinical trials, the Moderna vaccine was 94.1% effective at preventing laboratory-confirmed COVID-19.

6. Covaxin

Covaxin the covid 19 vaccine is developed using Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell derived platform technology. Inactivated vaccines do not replicate and are therefore unlikely to revert and cause pathological effects.It is included along with immune-potentiators, also known as vaccine adjuvants, which are added to the vaccine to increase and boost its immunogenicity.


Covaxin is an Indias indigenous COVID-19 vaccine developed by Bharat Biotech in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) – National Institute of Virology (NIV).

It is a 2-dose vaccination regimen given 28 days apart.The vaccine can be stored at 2C to 8C.It is authorised to administer for age above 12 years. COVAXIN demonstrated 81% interim efficacy.

7. Corona Vac

CoronaVac, also known as the Sinovac COVID-19 vaccine,developed by Sinovac Life Sciences, Beijing, China.

It is an inactivated virus COVID-19 vaccine and mixed them with a tiny amount of an aluminum-based compound called an adjuvant. Adjuvants stimulate the immune system to boost its response to a vaccine. CoronaVac works by teaching the immune system to make antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The antibodies attach to viral proteins, such as the so-called spike proteins that stud its surface.

Sinovac or Corona vac

The vaccine is given intramuscularly in two doses 28 days apart. In a phase I/II randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the vaccine appeared safe and immunogenic in healthy individuals aged 18 to 59 years.

8. NVX-CoV2373 (Novavax)

NVX-CoV2373 (Novavax) is a recombinant protein nanoparticle vaccine composed of trimeric spike glycoproteins and a potent Matrix-M1 adjuvant. The vaccine is given intramuscularly in two doses 21 days apart. In a phase I/II randomized, placebo-controlled trial of healthy individuals <60 years old, the adjuvanted vaccine induced high binding and neutralizing responses, comparable to those in convalescent plasma from patients who had been hospitalized with COVID-19. CD4 cell responses with a Th1 bias were also detected.


9. Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine

Ad26.COV2.S(Trade name : Janssen) vaccine is based on a replication-incompetent adenovirus 26 vector that expresses a stabilized spike protein. It is given intramuscularly and is being evaluated as a single dose. An unpublished report from a phase I/II randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial described high rates of neutralizing and binding antibodies after a single vaccine dose in healthy individuals 18 to 85 years old; these responses overlapped with but were slightly lower than those in convalescentplasma. Fewer than one percent reported severe systemic reactions. CD4 cell responses with a Th1 bias were also detected.

10. Covidecia

Recombinant Novel Coronavirus Vaccine (Adenovirus Type 5 Vector) (“Ad5-nCoV”, trade name: Convidecia) is a single-dose viral vector vaccine for COVID-19 developed by CanSino Biologics,China.

Convidecia is similar to other viral vector vaccines produced by AstraZeneca (AZD1222), Sputnick V (Gam-COVID-Vac), and Ad26.COV2.S.

Vaccines provide timely mass protection for adults aged 18 and above, including those over 60. Safe, stable storage and transportation between 2°C and 8°C, accessible by under-developed regions.

the vaccine had an efficacy of 65.7% at preventing moderate cases of Covid-19 and 90.98% efficacy at preventing severe cases.

11. Epi Vac Corona Vaccine

EpiVacCorona is an peptide antigens-based vaccine conjugated to a carrier protein and adsorbed on an aluminum-containing adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide), that provokes an immune reaction against COVID-19 and promotes the further development of immunity.it does not contain the live virus.

EpiVacCorona is developed by the Vektor State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology in Russia.

The vaccine delivered via intramuscular route twice.

12. RBD Dimer

RBD-Dimer is an adjuvanted protein subunit covid-19 vaccine  developed by the Institute of Microbiology at the Chinese Academy Sciences. The CoV spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) is an attractive vaccine target for coronaviruses but is constrained by limited immunogenicity, however a dimeric form of MERS-CoV RBD offers greater protection. The RBD-dimer significantly increases neutralizing antibodies compared to a conventional monomeric form.



Hormones and neurotransmitters are involved in numerous necessary functions like blood pressure, heart rate etc. These are the chemical messengers helps to communicate brain and body and these kind of communications are the key of health.

Precised emotions including Positive feeling, happiness, pleasure are connected with some of the hormones produced by our body. They regulate our mood and promote the positive feeling. So the happiness hormones and neurotransmitters plays a innate role in everyone’s mood, behavior, attitude and healthy status.

Hormones and neurotransmitters are two types of chemical signaling molecules. Hormones are produced by endocrine system as chemical impulse and released in to the blood stream while neurotransmitters are released by CNS in to synaptic gap.

Hormones Associated with Happiness

  • Dopamine : The feel good hormone, also known as brain’s reward system or motivational hormone. As the name indicates the hormone will release while the brain receives signals such as get praising, performed an action or task that has been rewarded or acknowledged, eating good and healthy food, celebrating achievements etc. The secretion of dopamine can be boost by changing the lifestyle like regular exercise and practicing deep breathing, healthy diet, proper sleep etc. These have a positive impact on healthy life.

  • Serotonin : The ‘natural antidepressant’ or ‘Mood stabilizing hormone’.It effects the mood upliftment, thinking ability and memory. When you feeling down without any reason you may follow the actions like brisk walk and indoor games to boost serotonin level. Excess serotonin level leads to sedation whereas deficiency leads to anxiety,depression and low mood etc. It depends more on gut so on healthy diet also.
  • Oxytocin : The love hormone or cuddle hormone, It produces while showing affection, love, kindness etc. Oxytocin promote bonding and trust, it also plays a role in calming nervous system  and regulates the stress response . On practicing yoga and spending time with loved ones will stimulate the secretion of oxytocin.
  • Estrogen : The female reproduction and positive mood hormone have the ability to produce serotonin and endorphin, the two chemicals helps to keep mood steady, reduce irritability and anxiety. Both law and high level of this hormone will disturb the normal well-being of mood. So a right biochemical balance is essential for the well-functioning.
  • Progesterone : The Female Ovulation and Calming Hormone.Insomnia, anxiety and migraine are commonly seen with imbalance of estrogen and progesterone. Studies have shown that progesterone shows anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effects by activating gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the brain.It also helps in relaxation and good sleep.
  • Endorphins : The pain killing hormone, since it reduces both physical and emotional pain, stress and strain. It also responsible for feeling of pleasure, calmness and well-being. The four major hormones which determine human’s happiness, viz. Endorphins, Dopamine, Serotonin, and oxytocin. The level of endorphin can be boost by laughing more, meditate and massages etc.
  • Endorphins : The pain killing hormone, since it reduces both physical and emotional pain, stress and strain. It also responsible for feeling of pleasure, calmness and well-being. The four major hormones which determine human’s happiness, viz. Endorphins, Dopamine, Serotonin, and oxytocin. The level of endorphin can be boost by laughing more, meditate and massages etc.

Foods Boost Happy Hormones

  • Beet root : Beetroot contain betain that helps the production of serotonin in brain which stabilize the emotional – mental health and improves happiness
  • Black Beans : The magnesium rich beans helps to boost serotonin level.
  • Egg : It contain the happy hormone booster tryptophan, and choline that elevate positive attitude and mental sharpness. Eggs are also loaded with mood-promoting omega-3 fatty acids, zinc, B vitamins etc.
  • Dark Chocolates : caused the release of endorphins in the brain and boosts mood, protects the brain, improves memory and focus.
  • Blue Potatoes : The powerful antioxidant anthocyanins gives the blue color and provide neuro-protective benefits like reducing mood killing inflammation in brain and helps in short term memory.
  • Coconut : studies show that coconut oil can increase brain activity, and for this reason it is being studied for possible benefits like fuel for for better moods,preventing dementia,and keeping brain healthier .
  • Honey : Honey increase the spread of dopamine and serotonin, that certainly head off depression and keep brain healthier.
  • Banana : Serotonin and the neurotransmitter named norepinephrine are present in banana which helps in regulating stress and fighting depression.
  • Yogurt : It is a great source for the production of dopamine, the feel good hormone. So it produce a strong positive emotional response.
  • Coffee : Coffee elevates the release of  happy hormone dopamine, it helps in feeling satisfied, well-being and energized





  1. Classify Microbes ?
  2. Write an account on staining techniques ?
  3. Write briefly about differential staining techniques ?
  4. What are the isolation techniques used for micro organisms ? Explain in detail ?


  1. On the basis of shape bacteria are classified how many major types?

A. Four types

B. Five types

C. Six types

D. Eight types

2. A common characteristic of archaebacteria……?

A. Structure of cell membrane

B. Structure of cell wall

C. Has fatty acid synthetase

D. Structure of flagellin protein

3. Staining material of gram positive bacterium is …….?

A. Fast green

B. Haematoxylon

C. Crystal violet

D. Safranin

4. Gram staining is an example for…….?

A. Simple staining

B. Differential staining

C. Negative staining

D. None of these  

5. If only one stain is used for staining a specimen…;

A. Simple staining

B. Negative staining

C. Differential staining

D. None of these  

6. Separation of a single colony is…..;

A. Pure-culturing

B. Isolation

C. Separation

D. Both a and b     

7. Which of the staining technique helps in demonstrating spore structure in bacteria as well as free spores?

A. Acid-fast stain

B. Endospore stain

C. Capsule stain

D. Flagella stain

8. In Gram-staining, iodine is used as a ______________?

A. Fixative

B. Mordant

C. Solublizer

D. Stain

9. The term prokaryotes refers to which of the following?

A. Very small organisms

B. Unicellular organisms that have no nucleus

C. Multicellular organisms

D. Cells that resemble animal cells more than plant cells

10. Which of the following dye is commonly used for the Negative staining technique?

A. Crystal violet

B. India ink

C. Methylene blue

D. Iodine

11. Which of the following method can be used to determine the number of bacteria quantitatively?

A. Streak-plate

B. Spread-plate

C. Pour plate

D. Pour-plate and spread plate

12. Loop wire is used in which of the following techniques?

A. Pour-plate

B. Streak-plate

C. Spread-plate

D. Roll-tube technique

Answers :

  1. A. Four
  2. C. Has fatty acid synthetase
  3. C. Crystal violet
  4. B. Differential staining
  5. A. Simple staining
  6. B. Isolation
  7. B. Endospore stain
  8. B. Mordant
  9. B. Unicellular organisms that have no nucleus
  10. B. Indian Ink
  11. D. Pour-plate and spread plate
  12. B. Streak-plate